Tuesday, July 31, 2012


I present to you our newest Grandson Treyvon William Spence!
Born at 6:15 am 8lbs July 31st 2012 Treyvon is in Foothills Hospital (NICU) neonatal intensive care unit
and Mom is resting more info to follow, no worries at this moment..

Treyvon is an English boy name.
The origin of the name Treyvon is Celtic derived from the meaning for “The Fair Town” into modern English/American.
Some speculate that this name is only a modern invention after 1800 but that is not the case. One other meaning of the name Treyvon is the possible combination of Trey and Devon; though cute I will just humor these folks. Yet another derivative of the name Treyvon is from the name Trevor = Trevon which comes from the ancient language of the Celts.
The location for origin of the name Treyvan is actually Cornish. Treyvan is a variant form of the Celtic to English Trevon. Trevon is largely used in the English language and it is derived again from Cornish origins. Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Brythonic Celtic language and a recognised minority language of today’s United Kingdom. Along with Welsh and Breton, it is directly descended from the ancient Britis language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. The language continued to function as a common community language in parts of Cornwall England until the late 18th century.
The Prince of Wales, Charles-Philip-Arthur-George, born 14 November 1948 is married to the Duchess of Cornwall Camilla the Duchess of Cornwall. Camilla-Rosemary; née Shand, previously Parker Bowles; born 17 July 1947. The first name use of Trevon is of obscure origin; it could be derived from the Cornish surname, which has itself been recorded in early forms such as Trevan, Trevain, Trevane, and Treven. The village Name, also recorded in the Cornish rolls (1302) as Treavon, means 'settlement by the water' from the elements 'tref' (village, settlement, homestead) and 'avon' (water). The surname is from the place name of the village of Trevone near Padstow or now Trevone-Padstow but known really as Trevone Bay and Village: http://www.holiday-trevone.co.uk/trevone_holiday_cornwall.html http://www.padstowlive.com/home/trevone
The meaning of the name Treyvon in Brythonic Celtic means “Settlement By The Water” or in Ancient Celtic Treyvon means “Three Families”. Treyvon appears In 2007`s Top-1000 name list at rank 986.. 1999 was a `top year` for the name Treyvon. (Based on 128 years of name history) In that year it ranked #921. The last time Treyvon appeared among the most common names was in 1995. These records go back to 1880. Based on research, most people would imagine a person with the name Treyvon to be: “A Strong And Independent Man”.
So in one word, you might describe Treyvon as an "Independent" person.
Also, here are some abbreviations for the name Treyvon: TREV, TREVI, TREY.
For Treyvon William Spence.

Written by,
Grandpa Richard…
July 31ST, 2012

Monday, July 30, 2012


On my first morning there, I was so poor that I wore construction boots as they had no holes in them. Painted them liquid shoe polish “Black”, so they were not as noticeable and no one said anything anyhow, strange? Put my hair up in a pony tail (remember, I had hair once? LOL) and then started my day at the Central Library, Magazine and Newspaper Department.
Because and indirectly the Calgary Public Library gave me much! It helped save a daughter from, child abduction, gave the other daughter a job, a step daughter a job and a sister In-Law Law also my Wife whom I met there jobs. As I said, from there I was blessed with the “Best Wife” ever and then I had an expanded family, which grew into 3 Grandchildren and NOTE: AS OF TODAY #4; Is on its way! I will keep you posted.
For sure working with Parents of Missing Children, involved me with 397 Missing Children cases since 1990! http://teamhope.org/who.htmlhttp://www.missingkids.com
The opportunity to work Hurricane Katrina, relief work as my pony tail (remember that hair?), sold and totally due to CPL for $4,000 that let  me and another person go down and help out with Samaritans Purse. http://www.samaritanspurse.ca/
The ability to turn off an and on a Computer and with some skills I went on a Center Street Church Mission to South Africa to install laptops for a Zulu High School that had none! http://www.cschurch.ca/missions/
CPL even attended my Baptism and I am now also a Rapid Response Chaplin.
Yes, CPL did “All This” through the hiring of myself 28 years ago today! Yes they also did not notice that they had hired a Klingon Warrior! Qapla’!
House Prices in 1984 at $68,322, 1984 Civic Census for Calgary = 619, 814,
Average Monthly Rent $350.00, Movie Ticket $2.50, 1 litre of gas $0.93 cents.
Today in History for July 30th = http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/july_30.html

My Favourite song of 1984 was:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KvkKX035484 Ghostbusters - Ray Parker Jr.
It is true there are ghost at certain libraries! I will never be one as I am going to heaven!
Ghostbusters: Library;

Another Favourite Movies for 1984 = Terminator or T-1
“Listen, and understand. That terminator is out there. It can't be bargained with. It can't be reasoned with. It doesn't feel pity, or remorse, or fear. And it absolutely will not stop, ever, until you are …” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lYOoWCv_PYE 
This is from T-2, notice in 1984 that I was also built like Arnold, well I am a little out of shape these days.
Star Trek III: The Search for Spock http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5b1a-hqvGNI I know, now days I would have forgiven my Klingon brother instead Cuz I am not really; Bad To The Bone.
With LOVE to you all and all that heaven will allow!
Sir Richard....

Friday, July 27, 2012


They say opportunity knocks but once in your life time. When it does you have to use your GOD given talents and then hop on the bus to drive yourself along the road too success! I seem to be at the bus stop still fidgeting about, waiting for the right bus.
Got lucky once though, as today it is Joyce and my 16th Anniversary of Marriage.
As with every morning, today I brought her a coffee in bed and 1 cut in 2 sesame seed bagel, with cream cheese on top of both halves. On a small plate with arranged Black Berries and Raspberries along with 1 Activia peach yogurt cup, 1 spoon and 1 napkin.
With LOVE also to you all and with all that heaven will allow!
From Sir Richard…

Thursday, July 26, 2012


Quantum computers work the same as any other computer, by using 0 & 1's or bits to function. The difference for Quantum Computers is that they use what are referred to as Qubits not quite like Cubits but similar in so many ways! Albert Einstein said to Niels Bohr; “That GOD leaves nothing to chance in regards to your Quantum Mechanics theory”. Niels Bohr then responded to Albert Einstein; “To stop telling GOD what to do!” Hence that was the start of the argument about Quantum Mechanics.
As I know GOD knows the truth behind this all. As this is GOD'S way of measurement, Cubits maybe we just spelled it wrong in translation? Actually are we not just babies with slide rulers when compared to GODS Greatness!
Written with Love to you all and with all that heaven will allow!

By Sir Richard…
P.S. Another night of pain, awaken by much Gee I Pee Funny, many times. Diabetic sweat that makes me flip my pillows often. Which are now starting to look like Civil War bandages? Then I stop to reflect on who I am thinking about and the thoughts are about GOD and you all, my Earth Angel Friends. He makes my insides feel calm, bubbly with happiness and no more alarm as the darkness of my night in His morning light fades :) Good Morning! :)
From Sir Richard…

Tuesday, July 24, 2012


THANK YOU ALL but tonight I am scared and the thought of leaving all behind has made me frightened sooo.!  Then a thought came to me as I txted my closest friends.
That the good of it is that GOD knows how much of a coward I am so He let me find and be with my close friends, who really love me and some are even sort of my “EARTH ANGELS” for lack of a better term but Angels none the less!
Hebrews 13:2: “Do not forget to show hospitality to strangers, for by so doing some people have shown hospitality to angels without knowing it.”  
GOD made it also for me and my Angels a 2 way street as I also do some small acts of kindness for them. So, I hope that I have helped you, as “YOU” know who you are and what you are is one of my Earth Angels, who share your warmth and a glimpse of heaven so I now fear not! :) THANK YOU!
Revelation 21:4 He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away.”
So, it is 4:20am and I just woken up and last night I bleed out of both areas and right now I had the most painful pee, that took 10 minutes to do! The Urologist said that bleeding as I from a certain function was nothing? NOTHING??
Now I am so naive and when you are in a room where 2 people are going to do a procedure (You know where?), you sort of give them your full attention and one does not argue! Well at least I did not only vibrate with fear but now it is 4am and these people do not they see that tonight; “gee I pee funny”? I know, shits and giggles for this nut case who is up early, as I just spelled pig backwards! :) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VK9qfVQ4Z04
Though I know that to heaven I can Not Yet Go because…
Whether you're happy or feeling low, heaven can wait because there’s always more LOVE to show. More Evil to fight, as we save others and more time to to let us show Evil’s minions the door! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jVbkz_3lO3c
from Sir Richard,
With Love and to you all and to you all that heaven will allow! :)

Sunday, July 22, 2012


https://youtu.be/YyNg7Jw7KMI - So Sad / Andrew Dawson song by Richard Harrow
Jerry Potts aka Bear Child was born in 1838 at Fort McKenzie, Montana United States Territory on the Missouri River, the only child of his Kainai mother Namo-pisi (Crooked Back) and Andrew R. Potts, a Scottish Canadian fur trader. The West was a lawless domain when Jerry Potts was born into the Upper Missouri fur trade in 1838. Being the son of a Scottish father and a Blood mother, he was given the name Bear Child by his Blood tribe for his bravery and tenacity while he was still a teen. Upon the death of his father in 1840, Jerry was given to American Fur Company trader Alexander Harvey by Namo-pisi prior to her re-joining her tribe. 

A violent, vindictive man, Harvey neglected and mistreated Potts before deserting him in 1845. American Fur Company trader Andrew Dawson of Fort Benton, Montana United States, a gentle man who was called “the last king of the Missouri,” then adopted young Potts. He taught the boy to read and write and allowed him to mix with the Indians who visited the trading post to learn their customs and languages. In his late teens Potts, who adopted the carefree mannerisms of the frontier, joined his mother’s people and from then on drifted between them and Dawson. As a person of mixed blood, he had to prove to both Indians and whites that he could cope in their respective cultures, and was well served by his quick wits, reckless bravery, skills with the knife and lethal accuracy with both a revolver and a rifle.

In about 1867 Jerry was elected king of fire(okmakak) while he was staying at the piikani encampment. When he became an adult, Potts was employed for several years by the American Fur Company, and from 1869 to 1874 he worked as a hunter for various whiskey traders. Much of this period of his life was shadowed by violence. He gained fame as an Indian warrior, and almost legendary accounts of his battles with the Sioux, Crow, and Plains Cree abound.
https://youtu.be/uMS_5aDX5bg - Killer than the Killee song by Richard Harrow

Potts married two members of the Piegan tribe named Panther Woman and Spotted Killer. Between the pair he sired several sons and several daughters. He considered himself a Piegan but he kept his Kainai name, Kyi-yo-Kosi.
By the time Potts was twenty-five, he was a wealthy man because of his horse trading. His herd rarely averaged less than 100 horses which made him the second wealthiest Indian in the area as wealth was measured by the Plains Indians in the number of horses a man owned. That his horses carried a number of diverse brands meant nothing. He could always produce bills of sale (even though he could not read them himself) for most of them. Those without papers, if they were American horses, were sold in Canada while paperless Canadian horses were sold south of the Medicine Line. Those branded with the markings of the US Cavalry were sold as far north as possible unless he had papers proving they had been purchased legally.

The going rate for a good horse at the time ranged between $75.00 to $150.00 so his large inventory showed his wealth. When he journeyed to Montana Territory to buy horses he would carry cash - often as much as a thousand dollars - with which to make the transactions. People knew he carried such amounts but they also knew he was Jerry Potts so he was left alone.
He became a minor Chief with the Kainai when he was perhaps twenty-five in recognition of his bravery in battle, his unquestioned leadership abilities, and his knowledge of the prairies. It is said he knew every trail from Fort Edmonton to the lands of the Cheyenne and Apache and every hill between those trails. He could find game when all others had returned to camp empty-handed. He spent much of his time in what is now Montana, guiding, trading horses, and drinking. Potts could speak several languages. He was fluent in English, Blackfoot, and Crow, had a better than average ability in Cree (which he would speak only when necessary), and was passable in Sioux, Assiniboine, and Algonquin.

For all his ability to get along with white men Potts was very much an Indian. He never fully understood the white man's reasoning. For instance, he could never understand the reason that white settlers equipped their houses with chamber pots. "Why," he once asked a Mountie, "would anyone piss in a perfectly good eating bowl when the entire prairie lay before him"?
During his teens Potts passed all the Indian rites of passage including the final agony of the Sun Dance wherein the fledgling brave is tied to a pole by thongs threaded through his chest muscles. Successful completion of this rite meant the youth had achieved glory by tearing himself loose either immediately or by staying tied to the pole in absolute silence for up to three days and then tearing loose. Potts chose to remain the full three days for such was his nature. He also belonged to several of the secret warrior societies which prevailed in large numbers throughout the Blackfoot nation.

Potts wore his "magic" talisman - a cat skin - next to his body at all times and hung his captured scalps on the lodge pole of his main teepee in Indian fashion. Still, he wore the clothing of the white man most of the time including a fashionable hat that sported a wide headband. His bushy, drooping mustache was as stylish as that of any white man. From a distance the stocky, bow-legged Potts looked like a white trapper in his buckskin clothing, his Stetson at a jaunty angle upon his head. Two .44 pistols hung from his gun belt complimenting the Henry rifle which never left his side. On his leg was strapped a long-bladed skinning knife. He always kept small gun inside a hide-away pocket, a practice that saved his life on several occasions. 

In 1870 Battle Of The Belly River:
https://youtu.be/Wjo2T9QykuU - Cree Massacre song by Richard Harrow.
The Battle of the Belly River was the last major conflict between the Cree and the Blackfoot Confederacy, and the last major battle between First Nations in Western Canada.
The battle took place on the banks of the Belly River within the present limits of the city of Lethbridge Alberta. A devastating outbreak of smallpox had reduced the strength of the Blackfoot, and a Cree war party had come south in late October, 1870 in order to take advantage of that weakness. An advance party of Cree’s had stumbled upon a Peigan camp and decided to attack instead of informing the main Cree body of their find.
The Cree and Assiniboine Indians which included Chief Big Bear (Mistahimaskwa) and Chief Piapot (Payipwat), who both lead the attack.

Just in nick of time the Metis Scout, Jerry Potts with a group of Peigans and 2 Blood bands who armed with repeating rifles came to their assistance. After a daylong battle the Cree’s and Assiniboine, who lost about three hundred of their number, were put to rout. The slaughter was such that Jerry Potts said; “You could fire with your eyes shut and be sure to kill a Cree.”

https://youtu.be/mwTR5_ARBDM – Murder song by Richard Harrow
In 1871, Potts was about thirty-one when his mother was murdered. Her killer had been an Indian who was drunk on "firewater" so he declared his own personal war on the whiskey runners. By the time Potts was 36 he had killed at least 40 men, mostly whiskey runners.
https://youtu.be/ociuGwYvQqY - Revenge song by Richard Harrow

https://youtu.be/NIM1jhuaqfc – Jerry Potts song by Richard Harrow
In September 1874, when the North West Mounted Police first marched west and sat lost and starving near the Canada-U.S. border, it was Potts who led them to shelter. For at that time Potts was trading horses in Fort Benton, Montana United States. He was hired as a guide, interpreter and scout by the newly formed Canadian North-West Mounted Police. His contract as a guide for the North-West Mounted Police was to last twenty-two years. He was paid $90 per month, which was quite a bit higher than a regular guide, and three times a police constable's salary. Even City Marshals in large cities such as Abilene or Dodge City often earned less than that amount. He also picked the location for the first North-West Mounted Police post, called Fort Macleod in Southern Alberta Canada.  
https://youtu.be/d2tvYHxNUwo - Lets Ride song by Richard Harrow

Over the next 22 years he played a critical role in the peaceful settlement of the Canadian West. He only ceased working for the force at age fifty-eight because the pain of throat cancer made it so that he could no longer ride. He died a year later, on 14 July 1896 at Fort Macleod Alberta. https://youtu.be/6wZLa0ugC88 – I Know My Way song by Richard Harrow
Jerry Potts was buried at Fort Macleod Alberta Canada with full honours in 1896 having served with the North-West Mounted Police (Todays RCMP) for twenty-two years and being given the rank of special constable.
Potts always received more salary than any other guide/interpreter because as a guide he had no equal. It was as an interpreter that he fell short although he spoke all the Indian languages of the prairies. He could also speak passable Sioux - if he felt like it. His weakness in interpretation lay in his habit of relaying the speaker's message in the fewest words possible. He would never speak a complete sentence if two words would suffice. At meetings between North-West Mounted Police officials and Indian chiefs he would listen intently then, following each speech, would condense what had been said into one or two short sentences
Once, following a Blackfoot chief's extremely long, flowery, impassioned speech to a delegation of visiting officials who had arrived from Ottawa to sign an historic treaty with the Blackfoot people, Potts remained silent as if fully digesting the colorful language. Finally, asked what the chief had said, the laconic Potts shrugged and replied, "He says he's damned glad you're here."
On another occasion, when asked by Inspector MacLeod what lay beyond a high rising hill ahead, Potts muttered, " Nuther hill."  
https://youtu.be/iiCX5DT9P5I – Settled By The Scout song by Richard Harrow

https://youtu.be/l0XDTgfCCKA – Long Time Laying Down song by Richard Harrow
Potts had two wives, who blessed him with several sons and a couple of daughters. He named one of his sons Blue Gun in commemoration of his favorite rifle. His many descendants still live mainly in Alberta and Saskatchewan with a few in Montana. Three of his descendants, one a young woman named Janet Potts, became Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers during the middle years of this century.
The city of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, east of Fort Macleod Alberta, has named a boulevard in Jerry Potts' honour.
This Jerry Potts Story was put together by,
Sir Richard aka Richard Abbenbroek…
Jerry Potts - songs all, written and performed by Richard Harrow
on the 1974 Album POTTS.
Jerry Potts Music Uploads Assistance thanks to Byran Bunz.
Dedicated with LOVE to you all and all that heaven will allow! By Sir Richard…

Friday, July 20, 2012


Hello, we in Canada if I may speak for us all, are heartbroken at such a loss of life in Denver. Our prayers and thoughts are with our American Cousins. It is not the gun that pulled its trigger but the person with the gun. From a world full of violence to the fact that even many video games make (in my opinion) the thinking of the few mentally ill to act in this detached way toward others’ lives. We must address the illness of these people. Again I cannot imagine what the families of the victims of this sick person's actions are going through, eh? For due to the total HORROR of it, I cannot really express properly with any words, what I would actually like to say!
With Love to all of my American Cousins and with all that heaven will allow.
Sincerely Sir Richard…

Thursday, July 19, 2012




“THE GUNS OF AUGUST” also published as “AUGUST 1914”, is a volume of history by Barbara Tuchman (1962), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0IYnRQJas0

The trigger event that caused World War I was on June 28, 1914 in city of Sarajevo. Serbian terrorists on that date ambushed and murdered the heir apparent to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, age 50, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg (the former Sophie Chotek), age 46, mother of three. European-wide diplomacy and military preparations during July are then referenced.

On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip (Gavrilo Princip (Serbian Cyrillic: Гаврило Принцип, pronounced [ɡǎʋrilɔ prǐntsip]; 25 July [O.S. 13 July] 1894 – 28 April 1918), one of a group of six Bosnian Serb assassins coordinated by Danilo Ilić. The political objective of the assassination was to break off Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. The assassins' motives were consistent with the movement that later became known as Young Bosnia. Serbian military officers stood behind the attack.
The Guns of August tells of the
manoeuvres by the leading politicians of the day, diplomatic affairs of each country, and actions undertaken by various armies, during the opening days of the war, August 1st to August 4th. Covered is the Kaiser's hesitation, the struggle by Russia to ensure her ally France would join in the war to help punish Serbia, France's attempts to win a guarantee from Britain of her involvement, if and when Germany's ultimatum was sent to Belgium.


• June 28, 1914: Serbian irredentists assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
• July 23: Austria-Hungary, following their own secret enquiry, sends an ultimatum to Serbia, containing several very severe demands. In particular, they gave only forty-eight hours to comply. Whilst both Great Britain and Russia sympathised with many of the demands, both agreed the timescale was far too short. Both nevertheless advised Serbia to comply.
• July 24: Germany officially declares support for Austria's position.
• July 24: Sir Edward Grey, speaking for the British government, asks that Germany, France, Italy and Great Britain, "who had no direct interests in Serbia, should act together for the sake of peace simultaneously."
• July 25: The Serbian government replies to Austria, and agrees to most of the demands. However, certain demands brought into question her survival as an independent nation. On these points they asked that the Hague Tribunal arbitrate (Todays United Nations).
• July 25: Russia enters a period preparatory to war and mobilization begins on all frontiers. Government decides on a partial mobilization in principle to begin on July 29.
• July 25: Serbia mobilizes its army; responds to Austro-Hungarian démarche with less than full acceptance; Austria-Hungary breaks diplomatic relations with Serbia.
• July 26: Serbia reservists accidentally violate Austro-Hungarian border at Temes-Kubin.
• July 26: Russia having agreed to stand aside whilst others conferred, a meeting is organised to take place between ambassadors from Great Britain, Germany, Italy and France to discuss the crisis. Germany declines the invitation.
• July 27: British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey meets the German ambassador independently. A telegram to Berlin after the meeting states, "Other issues might be raised that would supersede the dispute between Austria and Serbia…as long as Germany would work to keep peace I would keep closely in touch."
• July 28: Austria-Hungary, having failed to accept Serbia's response of the 25th, declares war on Serbia. Mobilisation against Serbia begins.
• July 29: Russian general mobilization is ordered, and then changed to partial mobilization.
• July 29: Sir Edward Grey appeals to Germany to intervene to maintain peace.
• July 29: The British Ambassador in Berlin, Sir Edward Goschen, is informed by the German Chancellor that Germany is contemplating war with France, and furthermore, wishes to send its army through Belgium. He tries to secure Britain's neutrality in such an action.
• July 30: Russian general mobilization is reordered at 5:00 P.M.
• July 31: Austrian general mobilization is ordered.
• July 31: Germany enters a period preparatory to war.
• July 31: Germany sends an ultimatum to Russia, demanding that they halt military preparations within twelve hours.
• July 31: Both France and Germany are asked by Britain to declare their support for the ongoing neutrality of Belgium. France agrees to this. Germany does not respond.
• August 1 (3 A.M. in Britain): The King of Great Britain personally telegraphs the Tsar of Russia.
• August 1: French general mobilization is ordered.
• August 1: German general mobilization is ordered.
• August 1: Germany declares war against Russia.
• August 1: The Tsar responds to the king's telegram, stating, "I would gladly have accepted your proposals had not the German ambassador this afternoon presented a note to my Government declaring war."
• August 2: Germany and The Ottoman Empire (Todays’s Turkey) sign a secret treaty. entrenching the Ottoman-German Alliance.
• August 3: Germany, after France declines (See Note) its demand to remain neutral, declares war on France. Germany states to Belgium that she would "treat her as an enemy" if she did not allow free passage of German troops across her lands.
• August 3: Britain, expecting German naval attack on the northern French coast, states that Britain would give "…all the protection in its powers."
• August 4: Germany invades Belgium according to the modified Schlieffen Plan.
• August 4 (midnight): Having failed to receive notice from Germany assuring the neutrality of Belgium, Britain declares war on Germany.
• August 6: Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
• August 23: Japan, honouring the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, declares war on Germany.


On one side were the Central powers. Italy is sometimes nominally included as a Central Power because of her membership in the pre-war Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. However, when fighting broke out Italy decided to sit out the fighting. In May 1915, Italy joined the enemies of the central powers, instead.

German Empire, August 1914 - November 1918

Austro-Hungarian Empire, August 1914 - November 1918
Ottoman Empire (Turkey) October 1914 - October 1918
Bulgaria, October 1915 - September 1918


On the other side were the allied powers. Some of these nations were only nominal allied powers and not involved militarily. (i.e. These countries did not actually FIGHT in the war.) In addition at the time some non-nations were among the allies. (i.e. These were not yet countries, yet fought in the war and were among the victors in the peace talks.)


Serbia, 28 July 1914 - October 1915 (in exile - November 1918)
Russian Empire, 1 August 1914 - November 1917
France, 3 August 1914 - November 1918
Belgium, 4 August 1914 - November 1918
British Empire, 4 August 1914 - November 1918
Includes Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and India
Montenegro, 8 August 1914 - January 1916 (in exile - November 1918)
Japan, 23 August 1914 - November 1917
Italy, 23 May 1915 - November 1917
Portugal, 9 March 1916 - November 1917
Romania, 27 August 1916 - December 1917, November 1918)
United States: 6 April 1917 - November 1917
Brazil: 27 October 1917 - November 1917
Greece (National Defence faction only), November 1916 - July 1917
Greece (Unified), 2 July 1917 - November 1917


Cuba, 8 April 1917 - November 1917
Panama, 9 April 1917 - November 1917
Siam, 22 July 1917 - November 1917
Liberia, 4 August 1917 - November 1917
China, 14 August 1914 - November 1917
Guatemala: 25 April 1918 - November 1917
Nicaragua: 7 May 1918 - November 1917
Costa Rica: 25 May 1918 - November 1917
Honduras: 19 July 1918 - November 1917
Haiti: 25 July 1918 - November 1917


Poland: Seceded from Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia
Czechoslovakia: seceded from Austria-Hungary (armed by France) and today is the 2 countries of Czech and Slovakia.
Arabia (Hejaz): seceded from Ottoman Empire (armed by Britain)
Armenia: seceded from Russia and fought against Ottoman Empire


Five nations broke off relations with the central powers, but did not declare war. Of these Uruguay went the furthest by seizing German naval vessels.

Bolivia, April 1917

Peru, October 1917
Ecuador, December 1917
Santo Domingo, April 1916
Uruguay, October 1917


Luxembourg was over-run early in the war and readily accepted German control. It is often listed on one side or the other. They never declared war either way.


An un-named terrorist group assassinates a high ranking member of the Government of…


A Thought For Everyone As War Is Just A Shot/I.E.D. Away.
Sir Richard…